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Author achudhan karunaharamoorthy reviewer dimitrios mytilinaios md, phd last reviewed may 03, 2020 the anal canal is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract. It is about 3 to 4 cm long and lies completely extraperitoneally. It begins at the anorectal junction distally from the perineal flexure and ends at the anus. It is located in a position between the rectum and the anus, under the level of the pelvic diaphragm. It is situated in the anal triangle of the perineum, between the left and right ischioanal fossa. anal canal, the terminal portion of the digestive tract, distinguished from the rectum because of the transition of its internal surface from a mucous membrane layer (endodermal) to one of skinlike tissue (ectodermal). The anal canal is located within the anal triangle of the perineum between the right and left ischioanal fossae. It is the final segment of the gastrointestinal tract, around 4cm in length. The canal begins as a continuation of the rectum, and passes inferoposteriorly to terminate at the anus. The external anal sphincter muscle is the voluntary muscle that surrounds and adheres to the anus at the lower margin of the anal canal. This muscle is in a state of tonic contraction, but during defecation, it relaxes to allow the release of feces. 1 it is the area between the anal verge and the junction of the stratified cuboidal and columnar epithelium (dentate line). 2 it is lined by squamous epithelium in the lower anal canal below which sebaceous glands and hair follicles arise but changes to stratified cuboidal and, finally, columnar epithelium of the rectum. The anal cushions are small submucosal masses comprising of fibroelastic tissue, smooth muscle and dilated venous spaces together with arteriovenous anastamoses. They are located at the left lateral (3 oclock), right posterior (7 oclock) and right anterior positions (11 oclock) in the upper anal canal. The anal canal marks the transition from the end of the alimentary canal to the exterior. Its prime function is to maintain continence by means of the internal sphincter. 1) level with the mucous membrane, the pectineal line contains the anal valves, which form the limits of a supravalvular area glossy red in colour and a blue-grey subvalvular area in which is sited the linea alba of hilton.